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[Black History Month]Who Shot Malcolm X?

Malcolm X

Malcolm X

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Black History Month
Who Shot Malcolm X?

El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz
May 19th, 1925 – February 21st, 1965

Many of the illest MC’s  of our time have quoted or used Malcolm as an inspiration in their work. KRS One flipped Malcolm’s infamous picture and used it as an album cover. “By All Means Necessary” is a universal quote.

Malcolm X ‘s affiliation with the heavy weight boxer Muhammad Ali, football star Jim Brown and soul singer/label owner Sam Cooke made him look cool.

Let’s take a look at the time line to see who Malcolm X was.

Malcolm X Time Line

1925   May 19 – Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska.

1931   Enrolled in Pleasant Grove Elementary School. Malcolm’s father, Earl Little, is run over by a streetcar and is killed.

1939   Malcolm’s mother, Louise Little, is committed to the State Mental Hospital in Kalamazoo, consequently placing Malcolm in a juvenile home.

1941   Moves to Boston to live with his half-sister, Ella.

1943   Malcolm moves to Harlem, New York. Becomes a waiter at Small’s Paradise. Known as “Detroit Red.” Involved in criminal activities.

1946   Convicted of larceny, breaking and entering, and carrying a weapon, Malcolm is sentenced to eight to ten years in prison. He starts to serve the term in Charlestown Prison. Here he begins reading as many books as possible and educating himself.

Detroit Red

Detroit Red

1947   Transferred to Concord Reformatory for fifteen months.

Influenced by some family members and impressed by letters from Elijah Muhammad, Malcolm converts to the Nation of Islam (not to be confused with actual Islam).

1952   Malcolm is released from prison after six years (instead of eight to ten) and meets Elijah Muhammad in Chicago. It is here that he received legendary “X” from the Nation of Islam.

1953   The FBI opens a surveillance file on Malcolm. He Moves to Chicago to live with Elijah Muhammad.

1954   Becomes the Minister of Temple Number Seven, located in New York.

1958   Marries to Betty Sanders in January and their first child, daughter Attallah, is born in November.

1962   Discovers that Elijah Muhammad is an Adulterer.

1963   Because of his “Chickens Come Home to Roost” speech about the assassination of Kennedy, he is suspended from representing the Nation of Islam.

1964  Begins collaboration on his autobiography with Alex Haley. Breaks away from the Nation of Islam and forms the Muslim mosque, Inc. Travels to Mecca and Africa. Forms the Organization for Afro-American Unity

1965   House is firebombed on February 14. On February 21 at the Audubon Ballroom at 3:10pm, he is shot several times and he is pronounced dead on arrival at Vanderbilt Clinic, Columbia Presbyterian Hospital.

Malcolm X in London

Malcolm X in London

Brutal Murder of Earl Little

When Malcolm was six years old, his father, the Rev. Earl Little, a Baptist minister and former supporter of the early black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey, died after being hit by a streetcar, quite possibly the victim of murder by whites.

As a rebellious youngster, Malcolm moved from the Michigan State Detention Home, a juvenile home in Mason, Michigan, to the Roxbury section of Boston to live with an older half-sister from his father’s first marriage. There he became involved in petty criminal activities in his teenage years. Known as “Detroit Red” for the reddish tinge in his hair, he developed into a street hustler, drug dealer, and leader of a gang of thieves in Roxbury and Harlem (in New York City).

Nation of Islam

While in prison for robbery from 1946 to 1952, he underwent a conversion that eventually led him to join the Nation of Islam, an African American movement that combined elements of Islam with black nationalism. His decision to join the Nation also was influenced by discussions with his brother Reginald, who had become a member in Detroit and who was incarcerated with Malcolm in the Norfolk Prison Colony in Massachusetts in 1948. Malcolm quit smoking and gambling and refused to eat pork in keeping with the Nation’s dietary restrictions. In order to educate himself, he spent long hours reading books in the prison library, even memorizing a dictionary. Following Nation tradition, he replaced his surname, “Little,” with an “X,” a custom among Nation of Islam followers who considered their family names to have originated with white slaveholders.

Malcolm rose rapidly to become the minister of Boston Temple No. 11, which he founded; he was later rewarded with the post of minister of Temple No. 7 in Harlem, the largest and most prestigious temple in the Nation after the Chicago headquarters. Recognizing his talent and ability, Elijah Muhammad, who had a special affection for Malcolm, named him the National Representative of the Nation of Islam, second in rank to Muhammad himself.

Through the influence of the Nation of Islam, Malcolm X helped to change the terms used to refer to African Americans from “Negro” and “colored” to “black” and “Afro-American.”

Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad

Elijah the Hypocrite

In 1963 there were deep tensions between Malcolm and Eiljah Muhammad over the political direction of the Nation. Malcolm urged that the Nation become more active in the widespread civil rights protests instead of just being a critic on the sidelines. Muhammad’s violations of the moral code of the Nation further worsened his relations with Malcolm, who was devastated when he learned that Muhammad had fathered children by six of his personal secretaries, two of whom filed paternity suits and made the issue public. Malcolm brought additional bad publicity to the Nation when he declared publicly that Pres. John F. Kennedy’s assassination was an example of “chickens coming home to roost”—a violent society suffering the consequences of violence. In response to the outrage this statement provoked, Elijah Muhammad ordered Malcolm to observe a 90-day period of silence, and the break between the two leaders became permanent.

Martin & Malcolm

Martin & Malcolm

No More Mr. Nice Guy

Malcolm left the Nation in March 1964 and in the next month founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. During his pilgrimage to Mecca that same year

In 1965 he founded the Organization of Afro-American Unity as a secular vehicle to internationalize the plight of black Americans and to make common cause with the people of the developing world—to move from civil rights to human rights.

On February 21, 1965, Malcolm was assassinated while delivering a lecture at the Audubon Ballroom in Harlem.

Who Shot Malcolm X?

3 NOI members, Talmadge Hayer,  Norman 3X Butler and Thomas 15X Johnson were convicted for the murder of Malcolm X in 1965.  Both Norman Butler who was paroled in 1985 and Thomas Johnson was released in 1987 were wrongly convicted for the crime they did not commit.

According to the convict Thalmadge Hayer (a.k.a. Thomas Hagan), 3 other NOI members joined together to shoot Malcolm X on February 21, 1965 and killed him. They were, Wilbur McKenley, Leon David and William Bradleys.

The source: Malcom X: Whatever Means Necessary by Mark Howitts

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オバマ大統領再選 ジェイZも支持!‘I Got 99 Problems, But Mitt Ain’t One’

President Obama 2012

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Jay-Z オバマ支持、キャンペーン参加!

 ’I Got 99 Problems, But Mitt Ain’t One’

2012年の大統領選では多くのヒップホップ・アーティストがオバマ軍勢のキャンペーンに参加しました。そのトップはジェイZ。投票日の2日前にはなんとオハイオ州のコロンバスでオバマを応援、替え歌ラップを披露しました。ヒット曲、「99プロブレム」のフック部分、’I got 99 problems, but b**ch ain’t one’ というオリジナル歌詞を‘I got 99 problems, but Mitt ain’t one’とオバマ候補のライバル、ミット・ロムニーの名前におき替えてラップし、大喝采を浴びました。ラッパーって面白いですね。パフォーマンスのあと、ジェイZがオバマ候補を紹介、「4年前、オレたちは希望とチェンジに投票した。世の中を変えるのは一夜にしてできるものじゃないけど、確実にいい方向に変ろうとしている。」と彼の功績を讃えました。

Jay-Z at Obama Rally

オバマ現大統領再選!「明るい未来!」を約束

オバマがみごと2期当選、「明るいアメリカ合衆国の将来」を熱狂的な支持者たちに約束してくれました。

バラック・オバマの当選に必要な票、270のところ303を確保しての勝利です。ポピュラー・ヴォートとよばれる人気票も50%獲得したそうです。もともと、黒人は約80%が民主党に投票するのですが、オバマの場合は90%以上の黒人たちが投票したようです。

オバマ氏は支持者たちへ「みなさんの応援本当にありがとうございます。今後4年間は公約を果たすため、全力を尽くす所存です。」とメールを送ったということです。期待してもよいのでしょうか……..。

(伊藤弥住子)

‘I Got 99 Problems, But Mitt Ain’t One’

President Obama 2012

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‘I Got 99 Problems, But Mitt Ain’t One’

Jay-Z joined Barack Obama in Columbus, Ohio 2 days before the election as the president closes out the end of the campaign season. “What’s up? Ohio makes some noise!” the rapper greeted the crowd and he jumped into a remix of “99 Problems,” substituting Mitt in the chorus to proclaim the GOP candidate as not a problem. Jay-Z said “Four years ago we voted for hope and change, that change is also on the way, we know it’s not an overnight thing, but we absolutely want to move forward.” Then he introduced Barack Obama.

President Obama Won and Promised ‘Best Is Yet To Come’

 President Obama won a second term and he promised his thrilled supporters “that for the United States of America the best is yet to come.”

The media projected President Barack Obama had secured more than the 270 needed to win the presidential election. Obama eventually won 303 of the electoral votes and 50% of the popular vote.

While more than 90% of the Black vote was projected to go to Obama, as the Black vote usually goes over 80% to the democratic candidate,  black leaders have also been sounding off for months on the high standards they would hold the president to in his second term.

Obama sent an email out to supporters Tuesday saying, “I will spend the rest of my presidency honoring your support, and doing what I can to finish what we started.”

Maxwell – TwoNight – M2N Tour 2012 一度見たら忘れられないマックスウェル・ライブツアー!

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Maxwell

Maxwell – TwoNight – M2N Tour 2012
 一度見たら忘れられないマックスウェル・ライブツアー

ライブの素晴らしさに定評があるグラミー賞受賞R&Bスターのマックスウェルが「マックスウェル・トゥー・ナイト – M2N Tour 2012」を開催。11人編成のバンドを引き連れ、3カ所、各2日(Two Nights)の合計6回公演を行うことになりました。日程は、ロサンジェルスのステープル・センターが7月20日、21日、アトランタのフィリップス・アリーナが7月27日、28日、そしてNJのニューアークのプルーデンシャル・センターが8月3日、4日です。ライヴ内容は1日目がファースト・アルバム「Urban Hang Suite」及び、セカンド・アルバム「Embrya」からの全曲を披露、2日目にサード・アルバム「Now」、4枚目アルバム「 BLACKsummer’snight」よりの全曲を披露するという趣旨なのだそう。また、未発表曲も歌ってくれる予定だとか。ツアーの収益の一部は秋に行われるオバマ/ジョー・バイデン再選支援に充てられるそうです。もう一度あの世界にどっぷり浸りたい人、まだマックスウェル体験をしていない方は是非この機会をお見逃しなく。チケットは48ドルより。

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伊藤弥住子

Maxwell – TwoNight – M2N Tour 2012
Now On Sale!

Grammy winning R&B star Maxwell announced that he and his 11 piece band will embark on a 6 day tour, MaxwellTwoNight -M2N tour 2012 – two nights in three cities, scheduled for the cities of Los Angeles, CA – Staples Center, (July 20 and July 21); Atlanta, GA – Phillips Arena (July 27 and July 28) and Newark, NJ at the Prudential Center (August 3 and August 4). Maxwell will perform his discography in its entirety. The first day of the tour Maxwell will perform songs from his first album “Maxwell’s Urban Hang Suite” and second album “Embrya”. The second day of the tour Maxwell will perform from his third and fourth albums “Now” and “BLACKsummer’snight” respectively. Maxwell will be debuting never performed songs from his BLACKsummer’snight trilogy. lt was also announced that proceeds from the M2N tour merchandise will support the “Obama-Biden 2012” re-election campaign.